In the United States, age of consent laws regarding sexual activity are made at the state level. There are several federal statutes related to protecting minors from sexual predators, but laws regarding specific age requirements for sexual consent are left to individual statesDistrict of Columbiaand territories. Depending on the jurisdiction, the legal age of consent is between 16 and In some places, civil and criminal laws within the same state conflict with each other.
Different jurisdictions express these definitions differently. Some, like most Australian states, may say the age of consent is 16 except if the older partner is in a position of authority over the younger one. So, effectively, the unrestricted age of consent there is Others, like Argentina, may say the age of consent is 18, but an exception is made down to 13 years of age, if the older partner is not in a position of authority over the younger one.
The data below reflects what each jurisdiction's legislation actually means, rather than what it states on the surface. While the general ages of consent are now set between 16 and 18 in all U. Inthe ages of consent were set at 10 or 12 in most states, with the exception of Delaware where it was 7. The final state to raise its age of general consent from under 16 to 16 or higher was Hawaii, which changed it from 14 to 16 in Age-of-consent laws were historically only applied when a female was younger than her male partner.
By ages of consent were made gender-symmetric. In Mississippi became the last state to remove this provision from its code. The laws were designed to prosecute people far older than the victims rather than teenagers close in age; therefore prosecutors rarely pursued teenagers in relationships with other teenagers even though the wordings of the laws made some close-in-age teenage relationships illegal. After the Landry and Forrest study concluded that men aged 20 and older produced half of the teenage pregnancies of girls between 15 and 17, states began to more stringently enforce age-of-consent laws to combat teenage pregnancy in addition to prevent adults from taking advantage of minors.
A backlash among the public occurred when some teenagers engaging in close-in-age relationships received punishments perceived by the public to be disproportionate,  and thus age-gap provisions were installed to reduce or eliminate penalties if the two parties are close in age. Kercher of the Criminal Justice Center of Sam Houston State University wrote that these laws are often referred to as "Romeo and Juliet laws", though they defined Romeo and Juliet as only referring to an affirmative defense against prosecution.
On June 26,both heterosexual and homosexual sodomy became legal between non-commercial, consenting adults in a private bedroom in all U. Supreme Court decision Lawrence v. Limonthe Kansas Supreme Court used Lawrence as a precedent to overturn the state's "Romeo and Juliet" lawwhich prescribed lesser penalties for heterosexual than homosexual acts of similar age of consent-related offenses.
From onwards states have started to enact Jessica's Law statutes, which provide for lengthy penalties often a mandatory minimum sentence of 25 years in prison and lifetime electronic monitoring for the most aggravated forms of child sexual abuse usually of a child under age Inin Kennedy v.
Louisianathe Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the death penalty for rape of a child was unconstitutional. The act has to be illegal under state or federal law to be charged with a crime under band can even be applied to situations where both parties reside within the same state but use an instant messenger program whose servers are located in another state.
This subsection is ambiguous on its face and seems to apply only when the minor is transported across state or international lines to a place where the conduct is already illegal to begin with.
The United States Department of Justice seems to agree with this interpretation. So, the age is 12 years if one is within 4 years of the toyear-old's age, 16 under all other circumstances. This most likely reflects Congressional intent not to unduly interfere with a state's age-of-consent law, which would have been the case if the age was set to 18 under all circumstances. This law is also extraterritorial in nature to U.Hospitality laws relate to food service, travel, and lodging industries.
It governs the various nuances of the hotel, restaurant, bar, spa, country club, meeting, and convention industries, among others. Much like entertainment law, homeowners association law, and other specialty fields, hospitality law is much more a description of the types of clients who seek out the attorneys who focus their practices in these areas rather than an actual set of laws. Hospitality law commonly encompasses a wide array of laws including contracts, anti-trust, torts, real estate, and many others.
Recent spurts of food poisoning cases and increasing awareness of food illnesses have brought hospitality laws front and center in the public conscience. Similarly, terrorist attacks against hotels abroad have also demonstrated the importance of hospitality law even in international affairs, especially as they pertain to protecting guests from harm.
While hospitality law covers many different types of businesses, hotels and restaurants are the two most common hospitality law clients.
American hotel operators have a number of legal duties to their guests. They are expected to protect guests' safety and avoid negligence. Hotels must also protect the confidentiality of their guests' identifying information. They must hire, manage, and fire employers just like any other business, and they must prepare and execute a seemingly endless stream of contracts.
Moreover, hotels must also obligated to protect their guests from criminal harms, like theft of belongings left in the rooms or other harms, possibly even terrorist attacks.
Restaurants, on the other hand, have a duty to sell food that is suitable for human consumption. Many states have enacted "Truth in Menu" laws governing descriptions of food items on menus to allow customers to make healthier choices and to ensure that the customer receives exactly what they ordered for example, 10 chicken wings will be 10 wings, not 9. The federal government also has a plethora of food regulations that restaurants must abide by, such as warnings regarding trans fats.
Restaurants must also protect customers against slips and falls, food poisoning, and other personal injuries. Both industries also commonly deal with anti-trust issues, franchise agreements, supply chain and other commercial transactions, labor disputes, and a variety of other legal issues.
The resources below will provide additional information regarding this area of the law, and you can find attorneys who focus their practice in this area under the "Law Firms" tab on the menu bar, above. Hospitality law has evolved as a specialty within the legal profession in the last several decades. It is also offered as a course on the undergraduate and graduate levels as well as in some law schools. A typical hospitality law course covers the history of hospitality law, the impact of federal and state civil rights laws on the hospitality industry, and an extensive discussion of contract law, including discussions of remedies for overbooking and a guest's breach of the contract regarding a reservation.
Hospitality law is the body of law relating to the foodservice, travel, and lodging industries. That is, it is the body of law governing the specific nuances of hotels, restaurants, bars, spas, country clubs, meeting and convention planners, and more. Hospitality law doesn't just involve one area of law. It encompasses a wide variety of practice areas, including contracts, antitrust, tort law, and more.
Hotel guests should be aware of certain laws and regulations or policies that could impact their visits.Knives laws in the Golden State are not as complicated as they initially seem.
California is a big state and there is no state law preemption. Surprisingly, however, California is relatively relaxed in terms of ownership. Broadly speaking, carrying knives whether open or concealed is legal in California. However, it is illegal to own many knives which are detailed below.
It is also important to note that California, unlike many other states, has a very clear and strict definition of switchblades. While knife owners should always be cognizant of the jurisdiction in which they are carrying, California is more welcome than most.
The open and concealed carry of many knives is completely legal. California is an open-carry state. Rather than listing, the knives are that legal to own, it may be easier to list the knives that bear restrictions. It is illegal to own the following types of knives in California:. It is legal to own a switchblade that is less than two inches or shorter. However, California defines switchblade in great detail stating that a switchblade is:.
Knife owners should be cognizant of whether their particular knife fulfills all of the criteria outlined by this definition. The law also notes that all legal fixed blades knives must be worn in plain sight. Dirks and daggers are exempted from this law. There is no language in the law that prevents openly carrying a sword or similar knife. Any blade that is concealed that is found to be locked in the open position cannot be conceal carried.
A nonlocking folding knife, a folding knife that is not prohibited by Sectionor a pocketknife is capable of ready use as a stabbing weapon that may inflict great bodily injury or death only if the blade of the knife is exposed and locked into position. California is one of the friendlier states for knife owners. If the blade of the knife is longer than two inches, it is not wise to conceal carry. There are additional rules for Los Angeles County specifically, which outlaw openly carrying a knife with a blade over three inches long.
It is important, as always, for knife owners to be cognizant of their surroundings and take appropriate precautions when carrying in a public place. None of the material in this article should be interpreted as legal advice. I am not a lawyer. Never take any action with legal consequences without first consulting with a lawyer licensed in your jurisdiction. This article should not be relied upon for making legal decisions.
This information is provided for scholarship and general information only. I love this knife! California Knife Laws. Share this:. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email.While there is no official minimum age to rent a hotel room, many hotels and resorts require guests to be a specific age. This generally leads most hotels to have a minimum check-in age of 18although some may allow younger guests to check in with a signature from a guardian.Disneyland - Grand Californian Hotel Review + Room Tour
Some states and cities have laws regarding minimum check-in ages. For example, the village of Schaumburg, Illinois, has an ordinance requiring anyone checking into a hotel by themselves to be at least 21 years of age. This law is intended to prevent hotels from becoming party venues. While many areas of the country have no such laws, it's prudent to research laws regarding hotels in the area where you wish to travel.
Another factor that can lead to an age restriction is the availability of alcohol in the hotel. It's not uncommon for venues that have an open bar or guest room minibar to enforce a minimum age of 21 or even Some hotels with alcohol available lock minibars or keep alcohol-free rooms available for younger guests.
The hotel makes special accommodations for younger individuals during certain times of the year, such as prom. While there are many legal and circumstantial causes for a hotel enforce a minimum age, the hotel also has the right to place conditions on the types of people they serve.
Exceptions include those protected under the Civil Rights Act ofor any applicable discrimination law in the state where the hotel resides. Age is not a protecting factor under the Civil Rights Act when it comes to receiving service from establishments not receiving financial assistance, so hotels are well within their legal rights to set age restrictions.
Indulging her passion for vacation vagary through the written word on a full-time basis sincetravel funster Jodi Thornton-O'Connell guides readers to the unexpected, quirky, and awe-inspiring. Video of the Day.
California Hotel Age Requirements
California Hotel Age Requirements. Smoke-Friendly Hotels. Share on Facebook. Local Laws Some states and cities have laws regarding minimum check-in ages. Age Discrimination Cournoyer, Anthony G. Marshall, Karen L.
About the Author Indulging her passion for vacation vagary through the written word on a full-time basis sincetravel funster Jodi Thornton-O'Connell guides readers to the unexpected, quirky, and awe-inspiring.A year-old might be capable of caring for himself, while a rebellious year-old might not be. California laws do not specifically provide a minimum age requirement to leave a child home alone, or a minimum age for a child to be able to care for younger siblings.
However, leaving children alone before they are ready may result in criminal charges and penalties. However, this can depend to some extent on the opinions of strangers. They include teachers and school personnel, adults associated with any youth organization such as community sports teams, and medical professionals.
California law defines general neglect as negligently failing to provide your child with shelter, food, clothing, medical care — and supervision. Child neglect can result in misdemeanor charges with penalties including up to one year in county jail, monetary fines and probation. If you think your child is mature enough to be left unattended, the California Department of Education sets out some guidelines for doing so. Write out the child's rules and post them on the refrigerator or in some prominent place so he can easily locate and refer to them.
Explain what he should say and do if a stranger telephones or rings the doorbell. List emergency contact numbers and anything else you think is important given your personal circumstances. Similarly, California does not have a minimum age for babysitting children, nor is there a law about how many siblings or other relatives a child can babysit.
Use discretion when determining whether an older child has, or lacks, the maturity needed to care for younger siblings. While a child of 12 or 13 may be responsible enough to care for himself at home, he may lack the maturity needed to care for younger siblings. Beverly Bird is a practicing paralegal who has been writing professionally on legal subjects for over 30 years.
She specializes in family law and estate law and has mediated family custody issues. Reviewed by: Michelle Seidel, B. TL;DR Too Long; Didn't Read California laws do not specifically provide a minimum age requirement to leave a child home alone, or a minimum age for a child to be able to care for younger siblings. About the Author.California alcohol laws can impact people in many ways. Not all of them good. A person age 21 might give alcohol to someone under that age.
They might think they are being a good friend.
But a conviction can be harmful. It may keep the person from being a law enforcement officer, teacher, lawyer, social worker, etc. Ignorance is no protection. Young people may want to work part-time. Many jobs are in tourism. And many involve working with alcohol.
Ages of consent in the United States
What is the age needed to be a server of alcohol? For being a bartender? Or for selling alcohol to drink off-premises? Only adults may work as bartenders or as servers at venues that sell alcohol for drinking on-site.
That is, they must be 18 or older. There is no age requirement for selling alcohol in stores for consumption off-site. But a manager must be present. California alcohol laws let those of any age below 21 have alcohol in private locations. Except in vehicles. They may drink if a parent, guardian, spouse or other responsible relative age 21 or older is present. Many parents do this to teach moderation in drinking.
And also Famous Alcoholics. Retailers may sell alcoholic beverages by the drink or package from 6 a. But they may not sell to. People under 21 may be in most business serving alcohol. However, they may enter beauty salons and barber shops that serve free wine or beer. Businesses may only offer such beverages to their customers age 21 or older. And they may serve only six ounces of wine or 12 ounces of beer per customer. Learn more by reading the law.
However, they may attempt to buy to help police entrap clerks. It is also illegal for anyone knowingly to buy alcoholic beverages between a. Customers of restaurants may take home partially consumed bottles of wine. This law is to discourage over-drinking to avoid wasting the remaining wine. Those under 21 may drink in a private location with a parent, guardian, or spouse age 21 or older.
Vehicles are not private locations. This may result from consuming too much alcohol from any source. It might be from drugs including prescription drugs. Or it might be from any combination of alcohol and drugs.
The legal BAC limits vary.In California, there are no hard-and-fast rules about kids' bedrooms. In fact, across the United States, no federal or state laws dictate how many children can share a room or whether children of opposite sexes can share a room. In your own home with your biological or adopted children, bedroom-sharing arrangements are entirely up to you and your kids — whenever you consider them old enough to have a say.
However, California does regulate sleeping arrangements for foster kids, which you should be aware of if you plan to become a caregiver. A bedroom is widely accepted to be a room created primarily for sleeping. The California Building Code refers to a bedroom as both a sleeping unit and a sleeping accommodation, and further defines this as a room or space in which people sleep. The room can also include permanent provisions for living, eating and either bathroom or kitchen facilities, but not both.
Additionally, the Code provides a series of requirements for bedrooms, which are likely to apply only to new buildings and renovations as many older properties were built before the code was passed. The net floor area must be no less than 70 square feet and the ceiling height must be no less than 7 feet 6 inches.
There must be a heating system capable of maintaining a minimum indoor temperature of 68 degrees Fahrenheit at a level of 3 feet above the floor, and the room must allow natural light equal to a minimum of 8 percent of the floor area of the room. A closet is not required to qualify a room as a bedroom in California. To prevent overcrowding of rental units, California adopted the Uniform Housing Code's occupancy requirements, which provides that any room used for sleeping must increase the minimum floor area by 50 square feet for each occupant in excess of two, but occupancy restrictions should not be confused with bedroom-sharing restrictions.
A landlord who tries to enforce bedroom-sharing restrictions may be violating California's Fair Employment and Housing Act, which bans discrimination based on familial status. So if you are renting, your landlord has no right to tell you what room your kids can sleep in, provided you're not violating occupancy requirements. As the parent or guardian, it's up to you to make bedroom-sharing decisions. Detailed requirements apply to bedrooms for children who are placed in foster care, whether they live with a relative or a non-relative caregiver.
The Checklist of Health and Safety Standards for Approval of Family Caregiver Home sets out these requirements, which prohibit more than two children from sharing a bedroom, prohibit sharing a bedroom by children of the opposite sex unless each child is under 5, and prohibit an adult and a child from sharing a bedroom unless the child is an infant.
Additionally, no more than two infants and no more than two adults may share the same bedroom. Standards also have to be met in terms of the equipment in the bedroom, for example, each child must have their own bed with clean linens, a pillow, blankets and a mattress in good repair.
Each infant must have a safe, sturdy bassinet or crib that is both age- and size-appropriate. Claire is a qualified lawyer and specialized in family law before becoming a full-time writer.
Reviewed by: Michelle Seidel, B. About the Author.
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